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Recent developments in addressing these challenges for the currently most commercially attractive deep-sea hard mineral resource, the polymetallic nodules found under international waters in the Clarion-Clipperton Zone of the North Pacific Ocean, southeast of Hawaii, have led to speculation that a more promising dawn for nodules, at least, may be imminent.
This presentation describes these developments with particular regard to proposed extraction technologies, selected technical, scientific and environmental issues and the international regulatory context.
Oceanographer (Ph.D, Imperial College, London)
Research interests: formation, biogeochemistry and ecology of oceanic ferromanganese crusts and nodules, biogeochemistry of micronutrient (trace) metals and plankton, deep sea (crust, nodule and seamount) ecology.
Lawyer (J.D., Florida State University).
Specialisation: law of the sea, especially marine scientific research, marine mining, sustainable use of the marine environment and its resources). In addition to research, including (so far) 23 oceanographic cruises, Philomene works on the interface between marine science and international marine law and policy with international and intergovernmental organizations. This involves her in the management of intergovernmental marine projects in fascinating locations and in development of marine environmental treaties.
Professional associations: International Marine Minerals Society; Marine Technology Society, Oceanography Society, Society for Underwater Technology, Fellow of the Institute for Marine Engineering, Science and Technology.
Philomene has so far published over 45 papers in the fields of marine science and international law of the sea. She is a Visiting Colleague with the Department of Oceanography at the University of Hawaii, a member of the World Commission on Environmental Law, Senior Adviser to the Advisory Committee on Protection of the Sea, and Representative for the Sargasso Sea Commission to the International Seabed Authority.
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