CIRCE - Buildings

This section of the Conservation Information Resource for Civil Engineers (CIRCE) provides information and guidance for building and civil engineers undertaking conservation, restoration and extending the life of existing buildings.

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Each sub-section provides links to general information and guidance regarding all types of building as well as specific information and guidance relevant to the main structural materials – masonry, iron and steel, reinforced concrete and timber. These are arranged under four headings: General guidance; Inspection, assessment and appraisal; Remediation, repair and conservation; Case studies. Additional links may also be found in the section of CIRCE dealing with particular construction materials, e.g. Masonry or Iron and Steel.

Simply choose the relevant bridge type and begin exploring our resources.

All buildings

Titus Salt’s mill for alpaca wool, near Bradford, UK, 1853. Eng. Wm Fairbairn. Photo: Tim Green
Titus Salt’s mill for alpaca wool, near Bradford, UK, 1853. Eng. Wm Fairbairn. Photo: Tim Green

The following guidance is of relevance to any type of building.

Key: Click on the resource title to get more information.

Where content displays the direct

icon, the information is accessible directly from the link. Otherwise the link provides full details of the resource and where it can be obtained.

 

General guidance

Introducing building conservation by Jonathan Taylor [web pages]direct

Building Conservation – Subject index [web pages] direct

Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings (SPAB) - Technical Q&As Index [web pages] direct

Department of Arts, Heritage (et al.) Advice Series, Buildings of Ireland [web pages] direct

Technical advice, guidance & research documents, and case studies, Historic Environment Scotland [several hundred current documents] direct

Technical advice and guidance, Historic England [several hundred web pages, documents and publications] direct

Technical advice, Cadw (Welsh Government historic environment service), [several dozen web pages, documents and publications] direct

Structural Studies, Repairs and Maintenance of Heritage Architecture, WIT Transactions on The Built Environment, Ed. C.A. Brebbia, Wessex Institute of Technology, UK. Vols VII-XIV, 2001-2015 [c.700 pp (40-50 papers) per Volume] direct

Assessment and Improvement of the Structural Performance of Buildings in Earthquakes (Prioritisation, Initial Evaluation, Detailed Assessment, Improvement Measures), New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 2006 [368 pp] direct

A History of Safety Factors by A. N. Beal, IStructE 2011 [14 pp] direct

IStructE Conservation Compendium, 18 papers IStructE, 2015-2016 [total 72 pp]

Part 1: Why keep it? Engineers and the modern conservation movement by James Miller, IStructE 2015 [4 pp]
Part 2: Conservation accreditation for the engineer by John Avent, IStructE 2015 [3 pp]
Part 3: Historic wrought iron, cast iron and mild steel by John Ruddy, IStructE 2015 [3 pp]
Part 4: Assessment and replacement of stone by Ed Morton, IStructE 2015 [3 pp]
Part 5: Inspection and repair of cantilever stone staircases by Clive Richardson, IStructE 2015 [3 pp]
Part 6: Concrete repairs to English cathedrals – what are the consequences? by Geoff Clifton, IStructE 2015 [6 pp]
Part 7: Imposed load in historic buildings: assessing what is real by Ian Hume & James Miller, IStructE 2015 [4 pp]
Part 8: Bond timbers in old brickwork by Lawrance Hurst & Andrew Dutton, IStructE 2015 [3 pp]
Part 9: Corrosion of steel frames behind masonry elevations – an introduction by Michael Beare, IStructE 2015 [3 pp]
Part 10: Corrosion of steel frames behind masonry elevations – assessment and treatment by Michael Beare, IStructE 2015 [3 pp]
Part 11: A career in ruins (the challenges presented by derelict structures) by John Avent, IStructE 2015 [5 pp]
Part 12: Scaffolding of historic structures by John Ruddy, IStructE 2015 [5 pp]
Part 13: Common repairs and strengthening of structural timbers in historic buildings by James Miller, IStructE 2015 [5 pp] Part 14: Dunston Staiths, Gateshead – a case study in timber conservation and repair by Charles Blackett-Ord, IStructE 2016 [4 pp]
Part 15: Use of lime in historic masonry construction in the UK and Ireland by Tim Ryan, IStructE 2016 [4 pp]
Part 16: The monitoring of movement in historic buildings and structures by E. Morton, IStructE 2016 [4 pp]
Part 17: Filler-joist floors – development, capacity and typical defects by James Miller, IStructE 2016 [4 pp]
Part 18: Non-invasive quantitative appraisal of historic floor structures by Jon Avent, IStructE 2016 [4 pp]

Conservation compendium. Epilogue: The future of conservation engineering by James Miller, IStructE 2016 [2 pp]

Conservation philosophy & the safety of historic buildings by Ian Hume, ICE Conference 2006 [21 pp]

Structural Aspects of Building Conservation by Poul Beckmann and Robert Bowles 2004 [368 pp]

Structural Repair of Traditional Buildings by PEB Robson 1999 [320 pp]

Structural appraisal and restoration of Victorian buildings by W. G. Curtin et al 1989 [14 pp]

Structural safety across the lifespan of buildings, ICE Conference 2006 [17 papers]

Technical advice for building professionals, Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings [several dozen current publications]

Inspection, assessment and appraisal

Structural Studies, Repairs and Maintenance of Heritage Architecture, WIT Transactions on The Built Environment, Ed. C.A. Brebbia, Wessex Institute of Technology, UK. Vols VII-XIV, 2001-2015 [c.700 pp (40-50 papers) per Volume] DIRECT

Non-Destructive Investigation of Standing Structures, Historic Scotland 2001 [66 pp] direct

Non-Destructive Investigations by R. Demaus [web pages] direct

Appraisal and Repair of Building Structures, Introductory Guide by R Holland et al. (eds), 1994 [128 pp]

Appraisal and Repair of Building Structures: Claddings and Fixings by M Wilson et al., 1994 [114 pp]

Conservation Compendium Part 7: Imposed load in historic buildings: assessing what is real by Ian Hume & James Miller, IStructE 2015 [4 pp]

Conservation Compendium Part 16: The monitoring of movement in historic buildings and structures by E. Morton, IStructE 2016 [4 pp]

Conservation Compendium Part 18: Non-invasive quantitative appraisal of historic floor structures by Jon Avent, IStructE 2016 [4 pp]

Surveying Historic Buildings by D Watt 2011 [300 pp]

Structural Analysis of Historic Construction: Preserving Safety and Significance by Dina D'Ayala et al., Conference, 2008 [1588 pp]

Remediation, repair and conservation

Structural Studies, Repairs and Maintenance of Heritage Architecture, WIT Transactions on The Built Environment, Ed. C.A. Brebbia, Wessex Institute of Technology, UK. Vols VII-XIV, 2001-2015 [c.700 pp (40-50 papers) per Volume] direct

Guide for the Design and Construction of Externally Bonded FRP Systems for Strengthening Existing Structures - Materials, RC and PC Structures, Masonry Structures, Italian National Research Council, 2004 [154 pp] direct

Case studies

Conservation case studies in Scotland, Historic Environment Scotland [31 current studies] direct

Structural Studies, Repairs and Maintenance of Heritage Architecture, WIT Transactions on The Built Environment, Ed. C.A. Brebbia, Wessex Institute of Technology, UK. Vols VII-XIV, 2001-2015 [c.700 pp (40-50 papers) per Volume] direct

Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage

Masonry buildings

Crystal Palace Railway Station, 1865. Photo Bill Addis.
Crystal Palace Railway Station, 1865. Photo Bill Addis.

The following guidance is specifically relevant to masonry buildings.

Key: Click on the resource title to get more information.

Where content displays the direct icon, the information is accessible directly from the link. Otherwise the link provides full details of the resource and where it can be obtained.

General guidance

The Safety of Masonry Buttresses by Santiago Huerta ICE 2010 [22 pp] direct

The Stone Skeleton: Structural Engineering of Masonry Architecture by Jacques Heyman, Cambridge University Press, 1997 [172 pp]

Inspection, assessment and appraisal Masonry Structures Structural Investigation and Assessment by Ian Hume [web pages] direct

Statische Beurteilung historischer Tragwerke. Band 1: Mauerwerkskonstruktionen (Structural assessment of historical structures. Vol.1 Masonry structures) by Stefan Holzer, Berlin: Ernst und Sohn, 2013 (Available in part through Google Books) [322 pp] direct

Appraisal and repair of masonry by G Parkinson et al., 1996 [216 pp]

Conservation compendium Part 4: Assessment and replacement of stone by Ed Morton, IStructE 2015 [3 pp]

Remediation, repair and conservation

Repair of masonry structures by Fritz Wentzel & Helmut Maus, 1992 [10 pp] direct

Rehabilitation and strengthening of old masonry buildings by H. Meireles & R. Bento, 2013 [22 pp] direct

Maintenance and Repair of Cleaned Stone Buildings, by M. Young et al., Historic Scotland 2003 [98 pp] direct

Strengthening buildings of stone masonry to resist earthquakes by R. Spence & A. Coburn, 1992 [10 pp] direct

Guide for the Design and Construction of Externally-bonded FRP Systems for Strengthening Existing Structures - Materials, RC and PC Structures, Masonry Structures, Italian National Research Council, 2004 [154 pp] direct

Unbonded FRP to improve the in-plane Performance of Masonry Panels by T. Stratford, 2010 [9 pp] direct

Experimental Bond Behavior of FRP Sheets glued on Brick Masonry by D. Oliveira et al., 2011 [20 pp] direct

Ruins: The Conservation and Repair of Masonry Ruins, Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government, Ireland, 2010 [74 pp] direct

Conservation compendium Part 5: Inspection and repair of cantilever stone staircases by Clive Richardson, IStructE 015 [3 pp]

Conservation compendium. Part 6: Concrete repairs to English cathedrals – what are the consequences? by Geoff Clifton IStructE 2015 [3 pp]

Case studies

Structural Studies, Repairs and Maintenance of Heritage Architecture, WIT Transactions on The Built Environment, Ed. C.A. Brebbia, Wessex Institute of Technology, UK. Vols VII-XIV, 2001-2015 [c.700 pp (40-50 papers) per Volume] direct

Engineering a cathedral (Durham) by M.J. Jackson, 1994 [204 pp]

The Gothic tower of Freiburg Minster, Germany: analysis and repair by Rainer Barthel, Joram Tutsch & Joseph Jordan, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Engineering History and Heritage 169 May 2016 Issue EH2, 68–83, [16 pp]

Compatible repairs to stonebuilt structures by David Wiggins & Agnieszka Klemm, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Engineering History and Heritage 167 November 2014 Issue EH4, 96–207 [12 pp]

Lime mortar and sacrificial protection of heritage stonework by Agnieszka Klemm & David Wiggins, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Engineering History and Heritage 168 November 2015 Issue EH4, 167–176. [10 pp]

Iron and steel frame buildings

Sheerness boat store, 1858-60. Eng. Godfrey Greene, Photo: Bill Addis.
Sheerness boat store, 1858-60. Eng. Godfrey Greene, Photo: Bill Addis.

The following guidance is of specific relevance to iron and steel frame buildings.

Key: Click on the resource title to get more information.

Where content displays the direct icon, the information is accessible directly from the link. Otherwise the link provides full details of the resource and where it can be obtained.

General guidance

19th-century Structural Ironwork in Buildings: Understanding, care and reuse by Mike Bussell [7 web pages] direct

Scottish Iron Structures by Tom Swailes, Historic Scotland 2006 [222 pp] direct

Conservation Compendium Part 3: Historic wrought iron, cast iron and mild steel by John Ruddy, IStructE 2015 [3 pp]

Inspection, assessment and appraisal

Appraisal of existing iron and steel structures (P138) Mike Bussell SCI [140 pp]

Structural appraisal of iron-framed textile mills by Tom Swailes and Joe Marsh, 1998 [64 pp]

Conservation Compendium Part 9: Corrosion of steel frames behind masonry elevations – an introduction by Michael Beare, IStructE 2015 [3 pp]

Conservation Compendium Part 10: Corrosion of steel frames behind masonry elevations – assessment and treatment by Michael Beare, IStructE 2015 [3 pp]

Remediation, repair and conservation

Corrosion in Masonry-clad early Twentieth Century Steel Framed Buildings Historic Scotland, 2000 [94 pp] direct

FRP composites: Life Extension and Strengthening of Metallic Structures: ICE Design and Practice Guide by S S J Moy (Ed.), 2001 [72 pp]

Case studies

Structural Studies, Repairs and Maintenance of Heritage Architecture, WIT Transactions on The Built Environment, Ed. C.A. Brebbia, Wessex Institute of Technology, UK. Vols VII-XIV, 2001-2015 [c.700 pp (40-50 papers) per Volume] DIRECT

Reconstruction of the Neues Museum in Berlin, Germany by Gerhard Eisele & Josef Seile, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Engineering History and Heritage 165 November 2012 Issue EH4, 221–233. [13 pp] direct

The restoration of Tynemouth Railway Station canopy by James Miller, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Engineering History and Heritage 167 August 2014 Issue EH3, 136–146. [11 pp]

Concrete and reinforced-concrete buildings

Highpoint 1, Highgate, London, 1935. Eng. Over Arup. Photo: Bill Addis.
Highpoint 1, Highgate, London, 1935. Eng. Over Arup. Photo: Bill Addis.

The following guidance is of specific relevance to concrete and reinforced-concrete buildings.

Key: Click on the resource title to get more information.

Where content displays the direct icon, the information is accessible directly from the link. Otherwise the link provides full details of the resource and where it can be obtained.

General guidance

Concrete: building pathology by Sue MacDonald, 2003 [328 pp]

Real strength and robustness of reinforced concrete structures by A. E. Long et al. 1989 [12 pp]

Management, maintenance and strengthening of concrete structures, fib Bulletin No. 17, 2002 [180 pp]

Seismic assessment and retrofit of reinforced concrete buildings, fib Bulletin No. 24, 2003 [312 pp]

Inspection, assessment and appraisal

Historic Concrete in Scotland Part 2: Investigation and assessment of defects. Historic Environment Scotland, 2014 [32 pp] direct

Appraisal and repair of reinforced concrete by R Holland, 1997 [160 pp]

Inspection and maintenance of reinforced and prestressed concrete structures by CEB / FIP, 1986 [8 pp]

Assessment of concrete structures and design procedures for upgrading (redesign), CEB Bulletin No. 162, 1983 [288 pp]

Monitoring and safety evaluation of existing concrete structures, fib Bulletin No. 22, 2003 [304 pp]

Condition control and assessment of reinforced concrete structures exposed to corrosive environments (carbonation/chlorides), fib Bulletin No. 59, 2011 [80 pp]

Strategies for testing and assessment of concrete structures affected by reinforcement corrosion, CEB Bulletin No. 243, 1998 [184 pp]

Remediation, repair and conservation

Historic Concrete in Scotland Part 3: maintenance and repair of historic concrete structures. Historic Environment Scotland, 2014 [40 pp] direct

Guide for the Design and Construction of Externally-bonded FRP Systems for Strengthening Existing Structures - Materials, RC and PC Structures, Masonry Structures, Italian National Research Council, 2004 [154 pp] direct

Repair and Renovation of Concrete Structures Conference 2005 [59 papers]

Extending Performance of Concrete Structures by R K Dhir et al. (eds), ICE conference 1999 [30 papers]

Concrete Durability and Repair Technology by R K Dhir et al. (eds), ICE Conference 1999 [79 papers]

Maintenance of prestressed concrete structures: Guide to good practice, fip Report, 1978 [14 pp]

Externally bonded FRP reinforcement for RC structures, fib Bulletin No. 14, 2001 [138 pp]

Case studies

Structural Studies, Repairs and Maintenance of Heritage Architecture, WIT Transactions on The Built Environment, Ed. C.A. Brebbia, Wessex Institute of Technology, UK. Vols VII-XIV, 2001-2015 [c.700 pp (40-50 papers) per Volume] direct

Refurbishing iconic reinforced-concrete buildings and structures, Themed issue. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage, Vol.169, Issue 1, February 2016

  • Conservation of Tallinn seaplane hangars by Maris Mändel & Karl Õiger
  • Repair works at Dudley Zoo by Stuart Tappin
  • Conserving Pier Luigi Nervi's ferroconcrete by Tullia Iori & Sergio Poretti
  • A concrete performance: conservation at the National Theatre by Stephen Douglas

 

Timber frame buildings

Roof truss, Parish church Schwaz, Austria, 1502. Photo: Bill Addis
Roof truss, Parish church Schwaz, Austria, 1502. Photo: Bill Addis

The following guidance is of specific relevance to timber frame buildings.

Key: Click on the resource title to get more information.

Where content displays the direct icon, the information is accessible directly from the link. Otherwise the link provides full details of the resource and where it can be obtained.

General guidance

SPAB Technical Q&A: Timber Frames [web pages] direct

Inspection, assessment and appraisal

Appraisal and Repair of Timber Structures by Peter Ross, 2002 [304 pp]

Statische Beurteilung historischer Tragwerke. Band 2: Holzkonstruktionen (Structural assessment of historical structures. Vol.2 Timber structures) by Stefan Holzer, Berlin: Ernst und Sohn, 2015 (Available in part through Google Books) [302 pp] direct

Remediation, repair and conservation

Timber Decay in Buildings - The Conservation Approach to Treatment by Brian Ridout, English Heritage / Historic Scotland, 2000 [232 pp] DIRECT

Dry rot and its treatment In historic buildings by J Carey et al. [web pages] direct

Guide for the Design and Construction of Externally-Bonded FRP Systems for Strengthening Existing Structures – Timber Structures, Italian National Research Council, 2005 [54 pp] direct

Conservation Compendium Part 13: Common repairs and strengthening of structural timbers in historic buildings by James Miller, IStructE 2015 [5 pp]

Case studies

Structural Studies, Repairs and Maintenance of Heritage Architecture, WIT Transactions on The Built Environment, Ed. C.A. Brebbia, Wessex Institute of Technology, UK. Vols VII-XIV, 2001-2015 [c.700 pp (40-50 papers) per Volume] direct

Conservation and Structure - the Roof to the Great Hall, Bedford School by D. Sugden et al., IStructE 1986 [5 pp]

Great expectations: timber repair and conservation by Christopher Mettem, IStructE 2003 [3 pp]

Conservation Compendium Part 14: Dunston Staiths, Gateshead – a case study in timber conservation and repair by Charles Blackett-Ord, IStructE 2016 [4 pp]

Other buildings

Cardington Hanger
Cardington airship hangars. Photo: David Merrett

The following selected guidance is of relevance to a variety of other types of building including hangars and dockyard buildings.

Key: Click on the resource title to get more information.

Where content displays the direct icon, the information is accessible directly from the link. Otherwise the link provides full details of the resource and where it can be obtained.

Hangars

Condition Inspection and Certification of Proposed, Historic and Existing Hangar Structures and other wide-span Building Structures, UK Ministry of Defence 2011 [20 pp] direct

Structural Appraisal and Certification of Proposed, Historic and Existing Hangar Structures and other wide-span Building Structures, UK Ministry of Defence 2011 [24 pp] direct

Safety Alert: Appraisal and Inspection of Masts & Towers and Hangars & other wide-span Buildings, UK Ministry of Defence 2013 [3 pp] direct

Dockyard buildings

Conservation and reuse of dockyard structures by R. J. M. Sutherland 1989 [17 pp]

The Historic Dockyard, Chatham: Conservation Management Plan, 2011-2016. [70 pp] direct

Car parks

Recommendations for the Inspection, Maintenance and Management of Car Park Structures by National Steering Committee on the Inspection of Multi-storey Car Parks, 2002 [112 pp]

War memorials

The Repair and Maintenance of War Memorials, Historic Scotland, 2014 [46 pp] direct

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