General civil engineering knowledge:
Institution of Civil Engineers, Knowledge and Resources - Energy: -
Energy Matters (Academic blog/commentary)
Renewable Energy Foundation (Charity for sustainability)
2. Storage information:
US Government Department of Energy - Global Energy Storage Database
National Grid Grounds for constraint?
Renewable Energy Association (REA) Energy Storage in the UK Report 2016 Update
Energy Storage Sense (blog about energy storage technologies and issues)
3. Solar information:
Green Rhino Energy - solar spectra for solar panels
Autodesk information on Human Thermal Comfort
Low Carbon Innovation Co-ordination Group
New Civil Engineer (magazine)
Energy Live News
6. Electricity / Energy
UK National Grid status
National Grid- Enhanced Frequency Response
7. Climate Change
Paris Climate Change Conference - November 2015
UN key document on COP21
UN News Centre COP21
COP 21 | The Guardian
UK new build – Nuclear AMRC
Solar cell efficiency - Wikipedia
Costa Rica clean energy TED talk
Radioactive waste management
Nuclear Industry Association
Nuclear Power Economics
World Nuclear Association- Nuclear Power in the United Kingdom
World Nuclear News
NIA Nuclear Activity report 2016
Hinkley Point C Contract for Difference: 451 pages
10. Nuclear Decommissioning
The Nuclear Option - Powering the Future and Cleaning Up the Past
This very good File on 4 radio documentary looks at the delays and spiralling costs in decommissioning old power station sites and asks how well is our nuclear industry being managed? Overall, it is reasonably well balanced. It has a brief discussion of new build projects and a more in depth probe of decommissioning contracts.
On decommissioning both the government and NDA come in for serious criticism on contract issues from those involved on the contractor side, which seems warranted considering the court judgement on the awarding of a major multisite decommissioning contract.
On new build, the programme gives the impression that there is a serious risk of nuclear new build projects stalling with only Hinkley Point C (HPC) now up and running. Other planned projects such as Moorside are delayed; there were plans for 3 reactors online by late 2020s but the site is still farmland.
HPC costs and delays are mentioned including delays by the government in giving the go ahead. The agreement of the £92.5 strike price was in late 2012. At that time this was similar to onshore wind and much less than offshore wind. Since then prices have fallen but with gas generation still the dominant source of power (47% today) it is clear that one low carbon technology can't deliver future energy needs alone. As for customers paying a premium for nuclear, it is true that ultimately if projects are privately financed, the customer will pay. How much of a premium depends on the price of generated power when HPC goes online.
Current guidance for Nuclear Decommissioning:
There is detailed guidance in place to ensure as far as possible that the Operator is liable for costs of decommissioning and management/disposal/storage of any wastes. The process is designed to ensure that the Funded Decommissioning Programme (FDP) built up over the years of operation is sufficient to pay for all of this.
A quote from the 2011 guidance explains the onus on operators to decommission nuclear sites:
"Any Operator of a nuclear power station is responsible for dealing with any waste that it produces and ensuring that the site is decommissioned and remediated in accordance with relevant legal and licensing requirements. The purpose of Chapter 1 of Part 3 of the Energy Act is to establish a regime whereby Operators of new nuclear power stations have in place plans for decommissioning their stations, and managing and disposing of the waste that they produce. They must also make prudent provision to meet the full cost of their decommissioning and their full share of waste management and waste disposal costs"
Of course there can be no cast iron guarantee for future events e.g. if a government decides to close down the power station early even though it is safe to operate, it would be difficult to expect the Operator to fully fund the process.
Disposal seems to be the preferred term for dealing with nuclear waste, which means putting it somewhere secure and safe.
The Energy Act 2008: Funded Decommissioning Programme Guidance for New Nuclear Power Stations (DECC, December 2011)
Funded Decommissioning Programme Cost Recovery Scheme: Guidance for prospective new nuclear operators (19 March 2012)
11. Environment data
World Meteorological Organization
NASA Earth Observatory
12. Energy organisations and bodies
International Energy Agency
International Hydropower Association
Energy Storage Association
Engineering the Future
Royal Academy of Engineering:-
SSE (UK Energy company)
Institute of Mechanical Engineers:-
Guardian Energy / Environment Section (UK Newspaper)
E3G (Climate Change Thinktank)
Energy and Climate Intelligence Unit (ECIU)
Energy Research Partnership
Electric Power Research Institute
Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR) (UK Nuclear regulator)
National Grid Status
EDF Energy Nuclear plant status
World Energy Council
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency (intergovernmental nuclear organisation for industrialised countries)
International Energy Agency
World Nuclear Association
Ingénieurs et scientifiques de France (IESF, British section of professional body for scientists and engineers)
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